Phospholipids and Sphingolipids of Milk

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Objective

To create a technology landscape report on Phospholipids and Sphingolipids of Milk<

  • Identify market players with prolific IP activity in the technology area
  • Segment the players by the industry they belong to


Note: This report is just a template and gives an indication of what the paid report contains.
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Background

Introduction

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MFGM: Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is a protein-lipid biopolymer that originates from the apical surface of mammary epithelial cells and surrounds fat globules in milk. While MFGM is in all dairy products containing milk fat, it is especially enriched in churn buttermilk, a co-product of butter production. The phospholipids and membrane glycoproteins found in MFGM likely interact extensively with the gut epithelia during digestion, both physically and biochemically. Moreover, MFGM has a relatively high concentration of sphingolipids, which in purified form have been demonstrated to be protective against colon cancer.Hintze et al


Phospholipids and sphingolipids fall under the category of polar lipids. The polar lipid content of raw milk is reported to range between 9.4 and 35.5 mg per 100 g of milk Rombaut and Dewettinck. The major phospholipid fractions are phosphatidylethanolamine(PE) and phosphatidylcholine(PC) followed by smaller amounts of Phosphatidylserine(PS) and phosphatidylinositol(PI). The major sphingolipid fraction is sphingomyelin with smaller portions of ceramides and gangliosides. These polar lipids are mainly(~60%) located in the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM),rest are located in skim milk phase.Lars Wiking
The phospholipids and sphingolipids in milk are gaining interest due to their nutritional and technological qualities. Sphingolipids and their derivatives are highly bioactive compounds with anti-cancer, bacteriostatic and cholesterol-lowering properties.Rombaut and Dewettinck

Nutritional Aspects/ Biological Effects of Some Polar Lipids of MFGM
MFGM Component Sphingolipids and Metabolites Phosphatidylserine (PS) Phosphatidylcholine (PC) Lyso-Phosphatidylcholine (lyso PC)
Nutritonal Aspects/ Biological Effects 1) Reduction in the number of aberrant crypt foci(clusters of abnormal tube-like glands in the lining of the colon and rectum) and adenocarcinomas(Epithelium Cancer). 1) Restore normal memory on a variety of tasks. 1) Reduction of necrotising enterocolitis 1) Bacteriostatic and bactericidal capacity
2) Shift in tumor type (malignant → benign) 2) Positive effects on alzheimer patients. 2) Support liver recovery from toxic chemical attack or viral damage
3) Anti-cholesterolemic. 3) Improve exercise capacity of exercising humans 3) Protects the human GI mucosa against toxic attack
4) Protection of the liver from fat- and cholesterol-induced steatosis(abnormal retention of lipids within a cell).
5) Suppression of gastrointestinal pathogens.
6) Neonatal gut maturation.
7) Myelination of the developing central nervous system.
8) Associated with age-related diseases and the development of Alzheimer. Mohamed Mansour El-Loly



Phospholipids

Phospholipids are fat derivatives in which one fatty acid has been replaced by a phosphate group (PO4-) and one of several nitrogen-containing molecules. These play a major role in milk due to their amphiphilic properties, i.e. they contain both hydrophobic tail(hydrocarbon chain) and hydrophilic head regions. Phospholipids represent a major portion of total lipids of buttermilk and skim milk, reflecting presence of proportionately larger amounts of membrane materials in these products Fox and McSweeney(Pg 71). MGFM phospholipids contain high levels of palmitic and oleic acid, while the short and medium-chain fatty acids are present in very low levels. Lars Wiking
Dairy phospholipids are important structurally, because they are able to:

  • stabilize emulsions and foams,
  • form micelles and membranes.

Phospholipids also have the potential to be pro-oxidants, because they contain mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids and have the ability to attract metal ions. Phosphatidyl ethanolamine binds copper strongly and is believed to be important in copper induced oxidation in milk Fox and McSweeney(Pg 580). The polyunsaturated fatty acids and metal ions accelerate lipid oxidation, especially when heat is applied; hence, phospholipids can be degraded during the processing of milk. Fox and McSweeney(Pg 20)


Sphingolipids

Sphingolipids are composed of a ceramide core, which in turn, is composed of a sphingosine(12-22 C-atoms) backbone with a fatty acid covalently bonded via an amide linkage. Several different head groups may be covalently attached to the ceramide, each resulting in a different class of sphingolipid. Examples include sphingomyelin, with a phosphocholine headgroup, glycosphingolipids with one or more monosaccharides in the headgroup and gangliosides, which have at least three sugars in head group including at least one sialic acid. Like phospholipids, sphingolipids are also amphiphilic in nature. Hintze et al

Sphingolipids and their derivatives are highly bioactive compounds with anti-cancer, bacteriostatic and cholesterol-lowering properties. Rombaut and Dewettinck One significant source of dietary sphingolipids is the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) Hintze et al. Milk contains (per L) 39–119 mg of sphingomyelin, 6–11 mg of glucosylceramide, 6.5–15 mg of lactosylceramide and ~11 mg of gangliosides. Rombaut and Dewettinck


Concept Table

ENGLISH KEYWORDS
Concept 1 Concept 2 Concept 3 Concept 4
Polar Lipid Milk Fat *********** Dairy
Phospholipid Sphingolipid Milk Fat Globule Membrane Milk
Phospha***** ****** ***** ****
********* ***** ******* ***

  • An indicative list of terms to show how a concept table is generated. View paid report for complete list.
  • Concept Table was enriched by searches related to phospholipids and sphingolipisd of milk from relevant patents, scientific articles and various thesauri

Relevant Class Code Definitions


IPC/ECLA

Milk Classes (IPC/ECLA)
IPC/ ECLA DEFINITION
A23C DAIRY PRODUCTS, e.g. MILK, BUTTER, CHEESE; MILK OR CHEESE SUBSTITUTES; MAKING THEREOF.
A23C9/00 Milk preparations; Milk powder or milk powder preparations
**** ****



US Class

Milk Classes (US)
US Class Code DEFINITION
426 FOOD OR EDIBLE MATERIAL: PROCESSES, COMPOSITIONS, AND PRODUCTS.
426/34 Of milk or milk product: Processes wherein the substrate fermented is milk or a lacteal derived source.
***** **********



Phospholipids and Sphingolipids Classes (US)
US Class Code DEFINITION
514 DRUG, BIO-AFFECTING AND BODY TREATING COMPOSITIONS.
514***** **********



F-Terms

Milk F-Terms
F-Theme Definition View Point Definition F-Term Definition
4B018 COLORING FOODS AND IMPROVING NUTRITIVE QUALITIES LB APPLICABLE FOOD LB07 Dairy Product
MD NUTRITION MODIFYING SUBSTANCES AND FUNGI MD71 Milk
***** ****** **** **** ****** ******



Phospholipids and Sphingolipids F-Terms
F-Theme Definition View Point Definition F-Term Definition
4C083 COSMETICS AD ORGANIC INGREDIENTS CHARACTERIZED BY STRUCTURES AD57 Phospholipids (Lecithins or the like)
***** ****** **** **** ****** ******



  • An indicative list of various class codes used for the IP search. View paid report for complete list.

Search Strategy

Search Engine: Thomson Innovation
Timeline: 01/01/1991 - 08/26/2011 (mm/dd/yyyy)

Search Strategy Using English Keywords

Database Covered: US Grant, GB App, US App, FR App, WO App, DE Util, EP Grant, DE Grant, EP App, DE App, JP Util, JP Grant, JP App, CN Util, CN App, KR Util , KR Grant, KR App, Other, DWPI

English Keywords
S.NO Scope Concept Strategy INPADOC Total Hits
1 Title, Abstract Claims Phospholipid OR Sphingolipid Keywords (Polar ADJ1 Lipid*1) OR ******* ### #####
2 Full Text Milk Keywords Milk OR Dairy OR ******** ### #####
3 Title, Abstract Claims Phospholipid Keywords (Polar ADJ1 Lipid*1) OR ********** ### #####
4 Title, Abstract Claims Sphingolipid Keywords (Polar ADJ1 Lipid*1) OR ******* ### #####
5 IPC OR ECLA OR US Milk Classes A23C000900 OR A23C0001** OR ******* ### #####
6 IPC OR ECLA OR US Phospho and Sphingolipid classes A23J000700 OR A61***** ### #####
7 Combination Queries All Keywords 1 AND ** ### #####
8 Combination Queries Phospholipid Kws AND Milk Classes 3 AND ** ### #####
9 Combination Queries Sphingolipid Kws AND Milk Classes ** AND 5 ### ####
10 Combination Queries Milk KWs AND Phospho and Sphingolipid Classes 2 AND ** ### #####
11 Combination Queries Final Query 7 OR ** OR ** ### ##### (No Relevant Hits)


Search Strategy Using French Keywords

Database Covered: FR App, WO App, EP Grant, EP App, DWPI

French Keywords
S.NO Scope Concept Strategy INPADOC Total Hits
1 Title, Abstract Claims Phospholipid Keywords Phospholipid*1 OR ******** ### #####
2 Title, Abstract Claims Sphingolipid Keywords Sphingolipides*1 OR ******* ### #####
3 Full Text Milk Keywords (Membrane*1 *****) ### #####
4 IPC OR ECLA Milk Classes A23C000900 OR A23C00******** ### #####
5 IPC OR ECLA Phospho and Sphingolipid classes A23J00700 OR A6******* ### #####
6 Combination Queries Phospholipid Kws AND Milk IPC/ ECLA 1 AND ** ## ####
7 Combination Queries Sphingolipid Kws AND Milk IPC/ ECLA ** AND 4 ## ###
8 Combination Queries Milk KWs AND Phospho and Sphingolipid IPC/ ECLA ** AND 5 ## ###
9 Combination Queries Final Query ** OR 7 OR 8** ## #### (No Relevant Hits)


Search Strategy Using German Keywords

Database Covered: WO App, DE Util, EP Grant, DE Grant, EP App, DE App, DWPI

German Keywords
S.NO Scope Concept Strategy INPADOC Total Hits
1 Title, Abstract Claims Phospholipid Keywords Phospholipid*1 OR ******* ### #####
2 Title, Abstract Claims Sphingolipid Keywords Sphingolipid*1 OR ****** ## ###
3 Full Text Milk Keywords (((Milch ADJ2 *******) ### #####
4 IPC OR ECLA Milk Classes A23C000900 OR A23******** ### #####
5 IPC OR ECLA Phospho and Sphingolipid classes A23J00700 OR ****** ### ####
6 Combination Queries Phospholipid Kws AND Milk IPC/ ECLA ** AND 4 ## ####
7 Combination Queries Sphingolipid Kws AND Milk IPC/ ECLA 2 AND ** ## ##
8 Combination Queries Milk KWs AND Phospho and Sphingolipid IPC/ ECLA 3 AND ** ## ##
9 Combination Queries Final Query ** or ** or 8 ### #### (No Relevant Hits)


Search Strategy Using F-Terms

Database Covered: JP Util, JP Grant, JP App, DWPI

F-Term Search
S.NO Scope Concept Strategy INPADOC Total Hits
1 Title, Abstract Claims Phospholipid Keywords ((Polar ADJ1 Lipid*1) OR **********) ### #####
2 Title, Abstract Claims Sphingolipid Keywords ((Polar ADJ1 Lipid*1) OR **********) ### ###
3 Full Text Milk Keywords (Milk ADJ1 Fat ADJ Globule *******) ### #####
4 F-terms Milk F-Terms 4B001AC06 OR 4B0******* ### ####
5 F-terms Phospho and Sphingolipid F-Terms 4C086DA41 OR 4C********* ## ###
6 Combination Queries Phospholipid Kws AND Milk F-terms 1 AND ** ## ###
7 Combination Queries Sphingolipid Kws AND Milk F-terms 2 AND ** # ##
8 Combination Queries Milk KWs AND Phospho and Sphingolipid F-terms 3 AND ** ### ####
9 Combination Queries Final Query 6 or ** or ** ### #### (No Relevant Hits)


Final Query


S.NO Scope Strategy INPADOC Total Hits
1 Final Query English OR French OR German OR F-Term(Japanese) ### #### (No Relevant Hits) (#.#% Relevancy)





Taxonomy

phospholipids and sphingolipids of milk.mm

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Relevant Patents (Sample Set)

Control Patents
S.No. Patent No. Publication date Asignee/ Applicant Title Dolcera Summary
1 WO2011069987A1 6/16/2011 NESTEC S.A. Infant Formula With Probiotics And Milk Fat Globule Membrane Components Formulation of infant feed (or nutritional product for patients in need) including probiotics and MFGM components along with other nutrient ingredients for improvising immune system and gut comfort. The MFGM components are recovered by ultrafiltration or microfiltration recovered buttermilk, or from whey protein concentrate, sweet whey, acid whey, whey cream, etc.
2 EP2308324A1 4/13/2011 Arla Foods amba Phosphatidylserine Enriched Milk Fractions For The Formulation Of Functional Foods Extraction of Phophatidylserine from natural source i.e. bovine buttermilk, butter oil serum, etc., following steps of centrifugation of cream, homogenizing to break resulting emuslion, collection of serum phase, and separation of fat by ultrafiltration including dialfiltration and finally spray drying. This composition can be used as nutraceutical composition in foods.


Sample Analysis

Click here for Sample__Patent_Analysis_Sheet

Assignee Analysis and IP Activity

  • Labels for all the charts below are available in the paid report.

Top Assignees

  • The following graphs explain the placement of the different assignees in this technology area.


Top 10 Assignees


  • Top players in field Infant Feed Formulations, Products(other then Infant Formulations) Formulations and Extraction.


Assignees in Filed of Infant Feed Formulation


Assignees in Filed of Product Formulation



Assignees in Filed of Extraction

Assignee Categorization

  • The assignees have been categorized into following areas:
  • Pharmaceutical Companies
  • Food Processing Companies
  • Dairy Industries
  • Cosmetic Companies
  • Nutraceutical Companies
  • Chemical Suppliers
  • Universities/ Research Institutes
  • Other Technology Partners
Assignee Categorization


Geographical Distribution

  • The following graphs explain the geographical distribution of patents.
Geographical Distribution of Patents


Geographical Distribution of Patents Family Members


  • The following graph explain the geographical distribution of assignees.


Geographical Distribution of Assignees

IP Activity

  • The following graphs explain the IP activity based on Priority year and Publication Year


IP Activity Based on Publication Year


IP Activity Based on Priority Year



Patent-Product Mapping

S.No Patent no. Title Assignee Products Product Description
1 US20110182943A1 METHODS OF IMMUNE OR HEMATOLOGICAL ENHANCEMENT, INHIBITING TUMOUR FORMATION OR GROWTH, AND TREATING OR PREVENTING CANCER, CANCER SYMPTOMS, OR THE SYMPTOMS OF CANCER TREATMENTS FONTERRA COOP GROUP LTD Phospholac 600 T.M. Phospholoac 600.png
2 US20090123630A1 PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE ENRICHED MILK FRACTIONS FOR THE FORMULATION OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS ARLA FOODS AMBA LACPRODAN PL-20 Lacprodan PL-60.png


Scientific Articles

Search Strategy

  • Database : Scirus
  • Timeline : 1991 - 2011
  • Subject Areas : Agricultural and Biological Sciences; Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Engineering, Energy and Technology; Life Sciences; Medicine and Pharmacology.
  • Information Types : Abstracts, Articles, Articles in Press, Books, Conferences and Reviews.


S.No Scope Concept Strategy Total Hits
1 Complete Document (Phospholipids OR Sphingolipids) Keywords ("Polar Lipid*" OR Phospholipid* OR ************** Sphingolipid* OR ************) #### (No Relevant Articles)
AND
Keyword(s) Milk Keywords ("Milk Fat Globule Membrane*" ******** OR Milk* OR *********)


Relevant Scientific Articles



  • The following graphs explain the placement of different Research Institutes and Universities in this technological area.
  • Patents with the maximum number of forward citations were determined and the graph shows the top 13 patents with corresponding assignees.


Top Research Institutes/ Universities

Dolcera Dashboard

Assignees were categorized based on the type of their Major Business Domians viz. food processing companies, cosmetic companies, pharma companies, nutraceutical companies, chemical suppliers, research and educational institutions, other technological partners, etc. and their patents have been shown in the Dolcera Interactive Dashboard.

  • A data preview of the dashboard is shown below:


Dolcera DB Data Pvw2.png


  • A chart preview of the dashboard is shown below:


Dolcera DB chart Pvw2.png

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