Other factors

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There is some evidence that water fluoridation may increase the risk of kidney stone formation. In one study, patients with symptoms of skeletal fluorosis were 4.6 times as likely to develop kidney stones.

Despite a widely-held belief in the medical community that ingestion of vitamin C supplements is associated with an increased incidence of kidney stones, the evidence for a causal relationship between vitamin C supplements and kidney stones is inconclusive.

There are no conclusive data demonstrating a cause and effect relationship between alcohol consumption and kidney stones.

However, some have theorized that certain behaviors associated with frequent and binge drinking can lead to systemic dehydration, which can in turn lead to the development of kidney stones.

The American Urological Association has projected that increasing global temperatures will lead to an increased incidence of kidney stones in the United States by expanding the "kidney stone belt" of the southern United States. Astronauts seem to show a higher risk of developing kidney stones during or after space flights of long duration.